Scientific innovations 2010
Andrew Clealand and John Martinis, physicists of Californian University, Santa Barbara, and their colleagues made an experiment, which provoked a microscopically semiconductor stick to vibrate due to the nature of quantum mechanics, not the classical one.
Quantum mechanics considers this stick as the first micro object with a thickness of human hair that is artificially constructed and corresponds to the laws of mechanics. Science compares this work with Ford, who created his first car in his garage and thus started mass automobile production.
Science recalls several important inventions.
The team of Craig Winter’s Institute, located in Maryland and California, USA, which is on the top of the list, revealed a new bacteria with an artificial genome.
This bacteria differs from the existing one only with the fact that one gene in genome is artificial. As a result some unnatural proteins are produced. These proteins are a combined mixture of genetic sequences and they have already become the foundation of a new science – synthetic biology.
Neanderthal man’s genome decoding
This genome was almost completely decoded by a big international group headed by Svante Paabo. He is a person who shocked the world 13 years ago with the information, that the Cro-Magnon men supplanted the Neanderthal men from Europe without any genetic intersections. The scientists have decrypted 73 % genomes of females’ who occupied Croatia 38-44 thousand years ago. After the research of compiled genome scientists proved that we all have gained 4 % of our genomes from the Neanderthal men.
The project „A thousand of genomes“ has been noted for its genetic analysis methods, the so called „exo-sequenizing“.
Physics has been praised for creation of quantum simulator – a system that helps physicist to solve matrix problems.
Molecular simulator has helped to conduct the complicated protein atomic reactions. The supercomputers could help in this field only for a very short period of time and no conclusions could be drawn. This year a 512 processors’ computer has changed the situation and improved the time of experimenting. It was enough for the research to put a piece of protein into water: the computer showed that it has curdled and unrolled for 15 times in a millisecond.